But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics. Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging to literature as an art.
Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals.
Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.
Other Internet related behaviors, e. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder.
Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction.
Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.
Introduction A revolutionary paradigm shift is occurring in the field of addiction that has great implications for assessment and treatment.
It is now evident that various behaviors, which are repeatedly reinforcing the reward, motivation and memory circuitry are all part of the disease of addiction [ 2345678910 ]. Common mechanisms among addiction involving various psychoactive substances such as alcohol, opioids and cocaine; and pathological behaviors such as uncontrolled gambling, internet use, gaming, pornography and sexual acting out have also been delineated.
As a result of the growing neuroscientific evidence, the American Society of Addiction Medicine ASAM formally expanded their definition of addiction in to include both behaviors and substances: Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry.
Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. The gaming prompts a neurological response that influences feelings of pleasure and reward, and the result, in the extreme, is manifested as addictive behavior.
Excessive use of the Internet not involving playing of online games e. This also matches Griffiths proposed differentiation between addictions to the Internet and addictions on the Internet [ 16 ].
An easier and perhaps more functional decision, however, would have been to maintain the proposed diagnosis of IA but simply require a subtype or specifier; gaming, pornography, social networking, shopping, etc.
Indeed, the original formal proposal for IA to be included in the DSM-5 incorporated the subtypes of instant messaging, pornography use, and video games [ 17 ], expanded later to include social networking [ 18 ]. This would have aligned the DSM-5 with what has, in fact, occurred in the field since its publication, namely, the continued scientific investigation into the broad range of potentially problematic behaviors involving Internet use.
This inclusive approach has been proposed multiple times, both historically [ 17 ] and recently [ 1920 ].Sample APA Papers: Literature Review This section offers a sample literature review, written by an undergraduate psychology student or family This finding is not easily explained other than these individuals are less affected by .
Family History Project - Most of the Filipinos worked on large farms in the San Joaquin, Imperial, Sacramento, and Salinas valleys. They were paid even less . Introduction. Social Theory and Social Structure is a landmark work by Robert King Merton first published in It is one of the most frequently cited works in the social sciences as it is a collection of theories and insights within structural – functional paradigm.
Literature Review Service; Other Services; Marking Services; The structural theory of family structure. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. The structural theory sees the family as an. Literature, a body of written ashio-midori.com name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution.
Literature may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language, national origin, historical period, genre, and subject matter.
According to Minuchin description of Structural Family Theory, it is the structural method to families establish on the idea that a family is more than the person bio psychodynamics of its members (Minuchin ).