Life A leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law and one of the founders of utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham was born in Houndsditch, London on February 15, He was the son and grandson of attorneys, and his early family life was colored by a mix of pious superstition on his mother's side and Enlightenment rationalism from his father. Bentham lived during a time of major social, political and economic change. The Industrial Revolution with the massive economic and social shifts that it brought in its wakethe rise of the middle class, and revolutions in France and America all were reflected in Bentham's reflections on existing institutions.
Of sensation external 2. Of reflection internal Hume begins by dividing all mental perceptions between ideas thoughts and impressions sensations and feelingsand then makes two central claims about the relation between them.
That is, for any idea we select, we can trace the component parts of that idea to some external sensation or internal feeling. This claim places Hume squarely in the empiricist tradition, and he regularly uses this principle as a test for determining the content of an idea under consideration.
For example, my impression of a tree is simply more vivid than my idea of that tree. One of his early critics, Lord Monboddo — pointed out an important implication of the liveliness thesis, which Hume himself presumably hides.
Most modern philosophers held that ideas reside in our spiritual minds, whereas impressions originate in our physical bodies. So, when Hume blurs the distinction between ideas and impressions, he is ultimately denying the spiritual nature of ideas and instead grounding them in our physical nature.
In short, all of our mental operations—including our most rational ideas—are physical in nature. Hume goes on to explain that there are several mental faculties that are responsible for producing our various ideas. He initially divides ideas between those produced by the memory, and those produced by the imagination.
The memory is a faculty that conjures up ideas based on experiences as they happened. For example, the memory I have of my drive to the store is a comparatively accurate copy of my previous sense impressions of that experience.
The imagination, by contrast, is a faculty that breaks apart and combines ideas, thus forming new ones. Hume uses the familiar example of a golden mountain: As our imagination takes our most basic ideas and leads us to form new ones, it is directed by three principles of association, namely, resemblance, contiguity, and cause and effect.
By virtue of resemblance, an illustration or sketch, of a person leads me to an idea of that actual person.
The idea of one apartment in a building leads me to think of the apartment contiguous to—or next to—the first. The thought of a scar on my hand leads me to think of a broken piece of glass that caused the scar.
As indicated in the above chart, our more complex ideas of the imagination are further divided between two categories. Some imaginative ideas represent flights of the fancy, such as the idea of a golden mountain; however, other imaginative ideas represent solid reasoning, such as predicting the trajectory of a thrown ball.
The fanciful ideas are derived from the faculty of the fancy, and are the source of fantasies, superstitions, and bad philosophy. By contrast, sound ideas are derived from the faculty of the understanding—or reason—and are of two types: He dramatically makes this point at the conclusion of his Enquiry: When we run over libraries, persuaded of these principles, what havoc must we make?
If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence?Jeremy Bentham was an English philosopher and political radical.
He is primarily known today for his moral philosophy, especially his principle of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based upon their consequences.
The relevant consequences, in particular, are the overall happiness created for. David Hume (—) “Hume is our Politics, Hume is our Trade, Hume is our Philosophy, Hume is our Religion.” This statement by nineteenth century philosopher James Hutchison Stirling reflects the unique position in intellectual thought held by Scottish philosopher David Hume.
Part of Hume’s fame and importance owes to his boldly skeptical approach to a range of philosophical subjects. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Preface to the Home Education Series. The educational outlook is rather misty and depressing both at home and abroad. That science should be a staple of education, that the teaching of Latin, of modern languages, of mathematics, must be reformed, that nature and handicrafts should be pressed into service for the training of the eye and hand, that boys and girls must learn to write English and.
Martin Heidegger (–) was a German philosopher whose work is perhaps most readily associated with phenomenology and existentialism, although his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification.
Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes .