Classroom management -- managing both student behavior and the physical learning environment -- is an ongoing concern of all teachers. Begin by considering the following four areas of classroom management: Establishing Classroom Climate -- the look and feel of your room; Conducting Class Efficiently -- managing time and students; Reaching All Students -- delivery, encouragement, teaching techniques; Establishing Discipline -- creating an atmosphere of consistency and mutual respect.
Goals, not content coverage or learning processes, provide the rationale for curriculum and instruction. Should you provide a service for someone, gather information about a particular person or place, or do something else?
Being in a classroom without knowing the direction for learning is similar to taking a purposeless trip to an unfamiliar city.
When teachers identify and communicate clear learning objectives, they send the message that there is a focus for the learning activities to come. This reassures students that there is a reason for learning and provides teachers with a focal point for planning instruction.
Providing feedback specific to learning objectives helps students improve their performance and solidify their understanding. Setting objectives and providing feedback work in tandem.
Similarly, feedback should be provided for tasks that are related to the learning objectives; this way, students understand the purpose of the work they are asked to do, build a coherent understanding of a content domain, and develop high levels of skill in a specific domain. In this chapter, we present classroom practices for setting objectives and providing feedback that reassure students that their teacher is focused on helping them succeed.
When teachers communicate objectives for student learning, students can see more easily the connections between what they are doing in class and what they are supposed to learn. They can gauge their starting point in relation to the learning objectives and determine what they need to pay attention to and where they might need help from the teacher or others.
This clarity helps decrease anxiety about their ability to succeed. In addition, students build intrinsic motivation when they set personal learning objectives.
When feedback provides explicit guidance that helps students adjust their learning e. The study provides separate effect sizes for setting objectives 0. These translate to percentile gains of 12 points and 28 points, respectively. The first edition of this book reported a combined effect size of 0.
Differences in effect sizes may reflect the different methodologies used in the two studies, as well as the smaller study sample size four studies related to setting objectives; five studies related to providing feedback and the specific definitions used in the study to describe the two strategies.
For example, in the Glaser and Brunstein study4th grade students who received instruction in writing strategies and self-regulation strategies e.
In addition, they retained the level of performance they reached at the post-test over time, and when asked to recall parts of an orally presented story, the strategy plus self-regulation students scored higher on the written recall measure than did students in the other two groups.
They also address the use of attributional and metacognitive feedback. For example, a study by Kramarski and Zeichner investigated the use of metacognitive feedback versus results feedback in a 6th grade mathematics class as a way to help students know what to do to improve their performance.
Metacognitive feedback was provided by asking questions that served as cues about the content and structure of the problem and ways to solve it. Results feedback provided cues related to the final outcome of the problem. Students who received metacognitive feedback significantly outperformed students who received results feedback, in terms of mathematical achievement and the ability to provide mathematical explanations.
They were more likely to provide explanations of their mathematical reasoning, and those explanations were robust—they included both algebraic rules and verbal arguments. Classroom Practice for Setting Objectives At a minimum, setting objectives involves clearly communicating what students are to learn.
There are four recommendations for setting objectives in the classroom: Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive. Communicate the learning objectives to students and parents.
Connect the learning objectives to previous and future learning. Engage students in setting personal learning objectives. Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive The process of setting learning objectives begins with knowing the specific standards, benchmarks, and supporting knowledge that students in your school or district are required to learn.
State and local standards or curriculum documents are generally the source for this information. Often, standards are written at a fairly general level. If they are not too broad, they might serve as learning objectives at the course or unit level. Often, teachers must "unpack" the statements of knowledge in their standards document to drill down to more specific statements of knowledge and skills that can serve as the focus for instructional design and delivery.
For example, as a 3rd grade teacher prepares to design and deliver writing instruction, he or she might encounter the following 3rd grade standard and expectation: Use the general skills and strategies of the writing process.
In this example, the standard is written at a very general level. The benchmark statement is more specific and could serve as the learning objective for a unit or portion of a unit. In this example, the teacher may use the unpacking process to determine that, in order to demonstrate proficiency, students need to be responsible for the entire process of writing a paragraph that groups sentences around a specific topic.The range of understanding and skill called for in the Standards acknowledges the complexity of what it means to know, to understand, and to be able to do in science.
Science is not solely a collection of facts, nor is it primarily a package of procedural skills. I've used many different types of goal-setting lessons in my own classroom, and you can read about them at The Best Posts On Students Setting ashio-midori.com student hand-outs, along with links to.
Debates in the Classroom Description There's no debate about it! Debates are a great tool for engaging students and livening up classroom curriculum.
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Website overview: Since the Study Guides and Strategies Website has been researched, authored, maintained and supported by Joe Landsberger as an international, learner-centric, educational public service.
Permission is granted to freely copy, adapt, and distribute individual Study Guides in print format in non-commercial educational . Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards () Chapter: 4 The Relationship between Formative and Summative Assessment -- In the Classroom and Beyond.